Much of a teacher’s success in the classroom is hinged on their use of teaching strategies, or to put it another way, their approach to their teaching, how they implement instructions, how they teach, how they communicate, and how they deliver information, how they communicate data to students.

The different teaching strategies available to the teacher are too numerous to mention all of them here, and indeed, many strategies interlink and may even be used collaboratively within any given lesson. However, using the work of Barry and King (1997:chapter 6) as a starting point, the following is a brief overview of some of the strategies that are more commonly used in the classroom.

The Broadcast Strategy
Method of implementation:

Set the scene

The Broadcast

Follow-up activity

Overview:

the utilisation of outside sources within a classroom/lesson (video, TV, radio and multimedia)

useful for developing and enriching knowledge, skills and attitudes from specialized material and presenters

it is a “one-way” form of instruction – students become passive receptors

effective but not ideal – used in collaboration with other strategies is perhaps the most desirable choice

activities based on the presentation broadcast is the ultimate aim for enabling student learning using this strategy

The Drill Strategy

Method of implementation:

Set the scene

Check meaning and understanding

Emphasize key learning points

Drill

Written test

Marking and recording

Overview:

the method of teaching through repetition

aims to produce an automatic response (rote)

continual reinforcement until knowledge is automatically triggered by key words to respondent

may be ineffective if implementation is allowed to become dull and boring to students

at risk of no or little understanding from students

effective if material being taught is understood by learners

The Exposition Strategy

Method of implementation:

Set the scene

Present the material

Student activity

Check understanding – transfer knowledge to real-life understanding

Overview:

the transmittence of information concisely and quickly

based on prior student knowledge – followed by assimilation through student listening

poor implemetation may lead to boring, tedious lessons

lacks interactive input and social factors

difficult to cater for individual learning needs

must be implemented in steps and limited to 2-3 key points

The Demonstration Strategy

Method of implementation:

Set the scene

Explain and demonstrate the skill/content

Student practice with teacher feedback

Apply/transfer skill/content in another context

Overview:

aims to promote acquisition of new skills through observation and imitation

used to help develop thinking skills and problem-solving skills

commonly used in subjects such as, PE, Handwriting, Spelling, Music etc

does not promote individual learning

the implementation is crucial, maintaining interest and enthusiasm at all times

A Concept Strategy

Method of implementation:

Set the scene

Identify items that are relevant to a problem

Group these items according to their similarity

Label the groups

Application and disclosure

Overview:

two methods of development – inductively or deductively

Deductive – id
entifying the concept to the class and illustrating with examples

Inductive – identifying the concept through a process of observation and discussion

major aim is to help students to organize and categorize information or experience into a meaningful intellectual framework

the major limitation of concept teaching is that it is a process strategy and, therefore, is limited in its application to the acquisition of content or highly specific information

in presenting this strategy it must be made clear that the concept being taught is worth it; it must have clear characteristics; student involvemnt is a key element; examples must be used.

A Simulation Strategy

Method of implementation:

Set the scene

Prepare to play the simulation

Play the simulation

Discuss and summarise

Overview:

major purpose is to re-create as near as possible, a real life situation or experience

students learn specific principles, concept /thinking skills in the cognitive domain, psychomotor skills and values/attitudes related to beliefs, consequence, efficacy and empathy

simulation stratgies are more suited to such subject areas as social studies, arts, langauge arts, and other problem-solving activities

possible disadvantages may be that they distort reality; become over-competeitive and contain hidden values; they are complex and time-consuiming in preparation

they must be suited to age and ability level and must have a pre-designed set of objectives.

A Group Discussion Strategy

Method of implementation:

Organise the group

Set the task

Discussion

Presentation of findings

Overview:

major purpose is to foster and enhance communication skills within the class

helps promote thinking and decsion-making skills as well as fostering different viewpoints and opinions

may be used in all key areas of learning

major limitation is that it is generally not suitable fro younger levels because of the level of reasoning required in order for it to work

is dependent upon the group routines and social climate of the class

teachers must be ble to guide and give aid as necessary but the class environment and the groups themselves often determine the outcomes

The Guided Discovery Strategy
Method of implementation:

The teacher sets a problem

The students explore the problem

Teacher and students discuss the probem and formulate conclusions

Overview:

major purpose is to have students actively involved in their own learning and problem solving

most suited to subjects that require active learning practices, concept development and discovering the solution to problems

it is effective in helping students to develop a better understanding of ideas and concepts

mainly used with abstract concepts, however, concret materials are beneficial, especially for younger students

major disadvantage is that it is not suitable for teaching a large number of facts in a concise and efficient manner

without correct teacher-guidance, students are at risk of learning incorrect information

not suited to students of all levels

It is highly recommended that you refer to the text referenced below for a more detailed view of the strategies outlined here. Always bear in mind that teaching strategies are not exclusive to one another and that the teacher who is open to furthering their skills in passing on information to their students, is the teacher that will ultimately cope better, and benefit their students the most.

Links to other Teaching Strategy sites:

Diverse Learning Needs

Different Types of Strategies

Teaching Strategies and Approaches

Teaching Strategies Inc.

Reference:

Most of the information on this page has been adapted from

Barry, K and King, L. Beginning Teaching (Second Edition)

(Australia: Social Science Press, 1997)